How Targeted Therapies Are Used to Treat Cancer
Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases in the world and the number one cause of death. It is a condition brought on by the growth of abnormal cells with the capacity to invade healthy body tissue and wreak havoc.
There is no definite cause of cancer; instead, experts think several variables interact to generate cancer. The factors could be a person’s genetic, environmental, or constitutional traits.
However, due to advanced cancer treatments, the survival rates of cancer patients are rising daily. You can visit any oncology hospital in Hyderabad to get the best cancer treatments. The type of cancer will determine the treatment. According to most oncology facilities, targeted therapy is one of the most effective cancer therapies, and it helps many people live longer.
What is targeted therapy?
Cancer cells are the focus of targeted therapy, which spares healthy cells. It primarily targets the proteins regulating cancer cells’ proliferation, development, and spread. It also serves as the cornerstone of precision medicine as it targets cells that promote cancer growth, like blood vessel cells, or alter the environment where cancer cells can thrive, such as the tissue milieu.
An oncology hospital in Hyderabad uses genetic tests to identify the genetic alterations that enable cancer cells to proliferate and survive. They then decide on treatments to eradicate or stop certain cells’ growth. This therapy can be used alone or with other cancer treatments to treat various cancers.
Cancer is treated using a variety of targeted medicines. And based on how they function, the many types of therapy are divided into two major divisions.
Monoclonal antibodies are lab-made proteins with specific targets on cancer cells that they can bind to. Some antibodies target cancer cells to help the immune system recognize and eliminate them more effectively, while others prevent cancer cells from proliferating or triggering their destruction.
Types of targeted therapy monoclonal antibodies include:
Angiogenesis Inhibitors – Delaying or stopping a tumor’s growth lowers the blood supply to the tumor. They aim for different proteins associated with developing new blood vessels and preventing them from functioning.
HER2-targeted agents – Cancer cells develop out of control when the protein HER2 is present in high amounts. Some medications used in targeted therapy kill HER2-positive cancer cells or inhibit their capacity to divide and spread.
Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibodies – They generate the CD20 protein, which is present in non-Hodgkin lymphomas and several B-cell leukemia.
Small molecule inhibitors
These medicines are utilized as targets inside cells since they are too tiny to infiltrate cancer cells quickly. Types of small molecule inhibitors include:
TKIs – which impede the transmission of proteins that instruct cancer cells to proliferate and spread. The cancer cells will perish without the signal.
mTOR inhibitors – mTOR is a protein that promotes the growth and spread of cancer cells, should is inhibited.
PARP inhibitors – inhibit a protein that helps cancer cells repair damaged DNA.
CDK inhibitors – stop CDK from releasing signals that promote the growth of cancer cells. Cells will die if this signal is not present.
How does targeted therapy work to treat cancer?
People typically get cancer when normal, healthy cells undergo a genetic mutation or modification. To begin targeted therapy, medical professionals must pinpoint the precise genetic alterations—referred to as the drug’s target—that support a tumor’s growth and transformation. Once the target has been determined, the doctors begin the targeted therapy and attack the cells.
Targeted therapies do a lot of work in cancer cells, such as:
- To cause cancer cells to die and alter proteins within them.
- Transport toxins to the cancer cells to kill them, sparing the healthy cells.
- Activate your body’s defenses to destroy cancer cells.
- halt the development of new blood vessels that will feed cancerous cells.
- The chemical signals the cancer cell uses to develop should be blocked.
The immune system is strengthened, and cancer cells are controlled by targeted therapy in various ways. The physicians will test you to learn about the genes, proteins, and other components to determine your type of cancer to provide you with the proper therapy.
Targeted therapy, unlike other treatments, also has specific side effects. Therefore, speak with your doctor to choose your tumor’s best course of action.